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 香川共同リポジトリは、香川県内で生産された学術研究成果を電子的に収集、整 理、保存し、インターネットを通じて無償で提供することを目的として公開して います。

*平成23年度国立情報学研究所最先端学術情報基盤(CSI)構築推進委託事業です。

kuir is 6787
total is 7390
18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis: correlation with serum muscle enzymes 奥田 花江 Hanae Okuda
Abstract Background Muscle enzymes are the major noninvasive diagnostic parameters useful in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Few studies have yet correlated findings on 18F-FDG PET with disease activity in patients with PM/DM. Purpose We evaluated 18F-FDG muscle uptake in patients with PM/DM compared with non-muscular diseases and correlated the results with serum muscle enzymes. Methods A total of 28 patients with untreated PM/DM and 28 control patients with non-muscular diseases were examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-FDG uptake was evaluated in 9 proximal skeletal muscle regions bilaterally. The uptake was scored as follows: 0 = less than that of the mediastinal blood vessels, 1 = greater than or equal to that of the mediastinal blood vessels, and 2 = greater than or equal to that of the liver. A score 1 or 2 was considered positive. The mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) were calculated in each muscle and were averaged for all muscle regions. PET findings were correlated with serum muscle enzymes. Results 18F-FDG uptake was observed in 82% of patients with PM/DM and 7% of control patients. The number of positive regions, total score, mean SUVmean, and mean SUVmax in patients with PM/DM were significantly higher than those in the control patients (all P < 0.001). The total score of 2 was the best cut-off value that could discriminate patients with PM/DM from control patients. The total score, mean SUVmean, and mean SUVmax showed significant correlations with creatine kinase (P = 0.047, 0.002, 0.010, respectively) and aldolase (P = 0.036, 0.005, 0.038, respectively). Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT using visual and SUV methods demonstrated its usefulness by discriminating PM/DM from non-muscular diseases and correlating with serum muscle enzymes in patients with PM/DM. Keywords: 18F-FDG; PET; Polymyositis; Dermatomyositis (医博乙294)

Intravenous edaravone plus therapeutic hypothermia offers limited neuroprotection in the hypoxic-ischaemic newborn piglet 山戸 聡史 Satoshi Yamato
Abstract Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a standard therapy for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. One potential additional therapy is the free radical scavenger edaravone (EV; 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one). Objectives and methods: This study aimed to compare the neuroprotective effects of edaravone plus therapeutic hypothermia (TH + EV) with those of TH alone after a hypoxic-ischaemic insult in the newborn piglet. Anaesthetized piglets were subjected to 40 min of hypoxia (3-5% inspired oxygen), and cerebral ischaemia was assessed using cerebral blood volume. Body temperature was maintained at 39.0 ± 0.5°C in the normothermia group (NT, n = 8) and at 33.5 ± 0.5°C (24 h after the insult) in the TH (n = 7) and TH + EV (3 mg/kg intravenous every 12 h for 3 days after the insult; n = 6) groups under mechanical ventilation. Results: Five days after the insult, the mean (standard deviation) neurological scores were 10.9 (5.7) in the NT group, 17.0 (0.4) in the TH group (p = 0.025 vs. NT), and 15.0 (3.9) in the TH + EV group. The histopathological score of the TH + EV group showed no significant improvement compared with that of the other groups. Conclusion: TH + EV had no additive neuroprotective effects after hypoxia-ischaemia in neurological and histopathological assessments. Keywords: Edaravone; Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; Piglet; Therapeutic hypothermia (医博甲763)

Effects of VEGF on Prefabricated Vascularized Bone Allografts in Rats 飛梅 祥子 Sachiko Tobiume
Abstract Background: Massive bone defects after wide resection of malignant bone tumors or a serious injury require treatment using vascularized bone grafts. Although cadaveric bone allografts combined with vascularized bone autografts are currently thought to be ideal in terms of size and durability, this treatment requires the scarification of healthy bone tissue. In a previous study, we attempted to improve this situation by prefabricating a vascularized bone allograft in recipient rats. In this study, we added vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-containing hydroxyapatite/collagen composite (HAp/Col) to a prefabricated vascularized bone allograft to stimulate angiogenesis, which is known to be important for bone formation. Materials and methods: Sprague Dawley rats (n = 50) were used as donors and Wistar rats (n = 50) as recipients. All rats were 9 weeks old. The recipient rats were divided into five groups according to the use of vascular bundles, HAp/Col, and an additive substance (VEGF). The bone allografts collected from the donors were transplanted into the thigh region of the recipients, and a saphenous vein and 10 μg HAp/Col with VEGF were inserted into the bone allografts through the slit. After 4 weeks, the transplanted bone allografts were harvested, and histologic and genetic evaluations were performed in relation to bone formation and resorption. Results: The results showed that, compared with the control group, the implantation of the vascular bundles and VEGF-containing HAp/Col significantly stimulated angiogenesis and bone formation in the rats with the bone allografts. However, histological and genetic evaluations of bone resorption revealed that resorption was not observed in any group. Conclusion: These results suggest that VEGF-containing HAp/Col effectively stimulates angiogenesis and bone formation, but not bone resorption, in prefabricated vascularized bone allografts. This method could therefore become a useful tool for treating large bone defects. Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor; basic fibroblast growth factor; allograft (医博甲762)

Repeated maternal separation causes transient reduction in BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex during early brain development, affecting inhibitory neuron development 天雲 千晶 Chiaki Tenkumo
Abstract It is widely accepted that maternal separation (MS) induces stress in children and disrupts neural circuit formation during early brain development. Even though such disruption occurs transiently early in life, its influence persists after maturation, and could lead to various neurodevelopmental disorders. Our recent study revealed that repeated MS reduces the number of inhibitory neurons and synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and causes mPFC-related social deficits after maturation. However, how MS impedes mPFC development during early brain development remains poorly understood. Here, we focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) involved in the development of inhibitory neurons, and examined time-dependent BDNF expression in the mPFC during the pre-weaning period in male rats exposed to MS. Our results show that MS attenuates BDNF expression only around the end of the first postnatal week. Likewise, mRNA expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), an immediate-early gene whose expression is partly regulated by BDNF, also decreased in the MS group along with the reduction in BDNF expression. On the contrary, mRNA expression of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), which is a BDNF receptor, was scarcely altered, while its protein expression decreased in the MS group only during the weaning period. In addition, MS reduced mRNA levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, only during the weaning period. Our results suggest that repeated MS temporarily attenuates BDNF signaling in the mPFC during early brain development. BDNF plays a crucial role in the development of inhibitory neurons; therefore, transient attenuation of BDNF signaling may cause delays in GABAergic neuron development in the mPFC. Keywords: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Cellular neuroscience; Early brain development; GABAergic neuron; Maternal separation; Medial prefrontal cortex; Mental disorder; Molecular neuroscience; Nervous system; Systems neuroscience (医博甲761)

Do low birth weight infants not see eyes? Face recognition in infancy 山本 真由美 Mayumi Yamamoto
Abstract Background: Progress in neonatal medicine has dramatically improved the survival rate of preterm births, but the evidence suggests that these low-birth weight infants (LBWIs) go on to develop pervasive development disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at greater rates than the general population. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders are known to suffer from deficits in visual cognition, such as in face perception and attentional functions, the characteristics of which already manifest in early infancy. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate visual cognition in LBWIs during infancy. Subjects: 20 LBWIs and 20 normal-birth-weight infants (NBWIs: control) of age 9-10 months (corrected age was used for LBWIs). Method: Children were held seated in front of an eye tracking system by a parent, and presented with facial photos as visual stimuli. During the familiarization phase, the child was presented with two images of the same human face (familiarization stimulus) on the left and right side of a display screen (5 × 10 s trials). Next, during the test phase, the child was presented with the same image on one side of the screen, and a photo of a different person's face (novel stimulus) on the other (2 × 5 s trials). Gaze behavior was assessed in terms of the total time spent looking at either facial stimulus, and specifically at the eyes of the stimuli, as well as the number of attentional shifts between stimuli, and novelty preference. Results/discussion: LBWIs spent significant less time looking at facial stimuli overall, and less time at the eye region, than NBWIs. These findings seem to evidence developmental differences in functions related to visual cognition. Keywords: Eye tracker; Facial recognition; Low birth weight infant (医博甲760)

The Effect of Gemcitabine on Cell Cycle Arrest and microRNA Signatures in Pancreatic Cancer Cells 波間 大輔 Daisuke Namima
Abstract Background/aim: Gemcitabine, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, is the gold standard chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in cancers, including PDAC. However, less is known about the effect of gemcitabine on PDAC cells and miRNA expression in PDAC. We evaluated the effect of gemcitabine on the cell cycle of PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo and on the miRNA expression profile. Materials and methods: Effects of gemcitabine on PK-1 and PK-9 cell growth were evaluated using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Xenografted mouse models were used to assess gemcitabine effects in vivo. Results: Gemcitabine inhibited the proliferation and tumour growth of PK-1 cells, and induced S phase cell cycle arrest. Numerous miRNAs were altered upon gemcitabine treatment of PK-1 cells and xenograft models. Conclusion: Altered miRNAs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for improving the efficacy of gemcitabine in PDAC. Keywords: Pancreatic neoplasm; cell cycle; cyclin; gemcitabine; microRNA (医博甲759)

Oncolytic HSV-1 in combination with lenalidomide for plasma cell neoplasms 奥 真紀 Maki Oku
Abstract Oncolytic viruses exert an anti-tumour effect through two mechanisms: direct oncolytic and indirect immune-mediated mechanisms. Although oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been approved for melanoma treatment and is being examined for its applicability to a broad spectrum of malignancies, it is not known whether it has an anti-myeloma effect. In the present study, we show that the third-generation oncolytic HSV-1, T-01, had a direct oncolytic effect on five of six human myeloma cell lines in vitro. The anti-tumour effect was enhanced in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals and, to a lesser extent, from patients with myeloma. The enhancing effect of PBMCs was abrogated by blocking type I interferons (IFNs) or by depleting plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) or natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that pDC-derived type I IFNs and NK cells dominated the anti-tumour effect. Furthermore, the combination of T-01 and lenalidomide exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity, and the triple combination of T-01, lenalidomide and IFN-α had a maximal effect. These data indicate that oncolytic HSV-1 represents a viable therapy for plasma cell neoplasms through direct oncolysis and immune activation governed by pDCs and NK cells. Lenalidomide is likely to augment the anti-myeloma effect of HSV-1. Keywords: HSV-1; immunotherapy; lenalidomide; myeloma; oncolytic virus (医博甲758)

雑報・裏表紙・英文目次


香川大学生のオンライン授業に対する評価と今後の意向(その1) 山崎 隆之 Yamazaki Takayuki


観光地ロイヤルティ構成モデルについての再検討 原 直行 Hara Naoyuki


研究授業「家庭支援論」についての考察 田中 弓子


研究授業「ビジネスイングリッシュⅠ」実施報告 井上 浩巳


研究授業「医療情報学概論」の実施報告 森 康之 佐藤 麻衣


保育施設における壁面構成の現状と今後の役割及び方向性 岡谷 崇史


教員養成における病弱児教育の授業内容の改善 -病気の子どもの多様な教育的ニーズに着目して- 堺 るり子


研究授業「教師論」についての省察 -職業人としての教員・保育士の制度的理解に向けて- 佐竹 勝利


中小企業の新規事業開発における連携と隔離のマネジメント 藤原 泰輔


プログラミング的な思考を身に着けるためのコミュケーションゲームの開発 山口 直木


特別支援学校教諭を目指す学生の教育実践力向上のためのICTを活用した模擬授業の試行 -知的障害及び肢体不自由・病弱に関わる教育実践に焦点をあてて- 山口 明日香 堺 るり子


小学校教員免許取得を希望する学生を対象とした「理科を教える自信」に関する調査 糸目 真也 織田 幸美