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 香川共同リポジトリは、香川県内で生産された学術研究成果を電子的に収集、整 理、保存し、インターネットを通じて無償で提供することを目的として公開して います。

*平成23年度国立情報学研究所最先端学術情報基盤(CSI)構築推進委託事業です。

kuir is 6407
total is 6972
Effects of diuretics on SGLT2 inhibitor-induced changes in blood pressure in obese rats suffering from the metabolic syndrome MD. ASADUR RAHMAN Rahman Asadur
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Experiments were carried out to investigate whether diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide + furosemide) impact on the effects of a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor on glucose metabolism and blood pressure (BP) in metabolic syndrome SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp). METHODS: Male 13-week-old SHRcp were treated with: vehicle; the SGLT2-inhibitor luseogliflozin (10 mg/kg per day); diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide; 10 mg/kg/day + furosemide; 5 mg/kg per day); or luseogliflozin + diuretics (n = 5-8 for each group) daily by oral gavage for 5 weeks. BP and glucose metabolism were evaluated by a telemetry system and oral glucose tolerance test, respectively. RESULTS: Vehicle-treated SHRcp developed nondipper type hypertension (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 148.6 ± 0.7 and 148.0 ± 0.7 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.2) and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, luseogliflozin-treated rats showed an approximately 4000-fold increase in urinary excretion of glucose and improved glucose metabolism. Luseogliflozin also significantly decreased BP and turned the circadian rhythm of BP from a nondipper to dipper pattern (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 138.0 ± 1.6 and 132.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01), which were associated with a significant increase in urinary excretion of sodium. Addition of diuretics did not influence luseogliflozin-induced improvement of glucose metabolism and circadian rhythm of BP in SHRcp. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a SGLT2 inhibitor elicits its beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and hypertension in study participants with metabolic syndrome undergoing treatment with diuretics. Keywords: diuretics; glucose homeostasis; hypertension; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (医博乙277)

Effects of Makeup Application on Diverting the Gaze of Others from Areas of Inflammatory Lesions in Patients with Acne Vulgaris 米田(村上) 有美 Murakami-Yoneda Yumi
ABSTRACT: Skin manifestations can be major sources of stress for patients with skin diseases; hence, the effective use of makeup and cosmetic products for these patients has been established. The objective of this study was to determine if makeup can divert observers’ gaze from areas of inflammatory acne lesions. Both base and point makeup were applied to two Japanese female patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris to hide skin manifestations, as well as to accentuate the eyes and lips. Photographs of their faces were shown, at various stages of makeup application, to 22 observers (11 men and 11 women). The effects of makeup application, and other eye-diverting strategies (e.g., clothing, accessories, and hairstyle), used to draw observers’ gaze away from acne lesions, were evaluated by analyzing observers’ eye movements. As base makeup application proceeded, time to first fixation, total fixation duration, and fixation count changed. Compared to “no makeup”, the time to first fixation, total fixation duration, and fixation count also decreased significantly after point makeup application. The additional eye-diverting strategies used also had significant gaze-diverting effects. Therefore, makeup can be useful for patients with acne to divert others’ gaze from lesions. Therefore, it should be actively integrated into acne management. KEYWORDS: Acne Vulgaris, Eye Tracking, Base Makeup, Point Makeup, Gaze Diversion (医博乙276)

Usefulness of multislice-CT using multiplanar reconstruction in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular lesions in the middle ear diseases 藤原 聖子 Fujiwara Seiko
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in obtaining preoperative information on the ossicular lesions of middle ear diseases by comparing the ossicular findings of MPR images with the operative findings. METHODS: Sixty-two ears and 10 ears with preoperative middle ear diseases underwent 4- and 64-detector row CT of the temporal bone in Kagawa University Hospital, respectively. MPR images of three ossicles were created at the planes parallel to the long axis of ossicles. RESULTS: The findings of the three ossicles in MPR images were compatible with their operative findings in approximately 91% of 72 ears with various middle ear diseases. There was no significant difference in the coincidence rate of both findings between 4- and 64-detector row CT scanners. The ears with no soft tissue shadows around the ossicles had the coincidence rate of 96-100% in each ossicular part, whereas the coincidence rate was lower in the ears with soft tissue shadows around the ossicles. CONCLUSION: MPR imagings of the ossicles provide accurate preoperative information on the ossicular lesions in middle ear diseases. The 4-detector CT is still a useful device for imaging of the ossicles. KEYWORDS: Auditory ossicular lesion; Middle ear diseases; Multiplanar reconstruction image; Multiscan CT; Surgical findings (医博乙275)

Immunohistochemical analysis of transporters related to clearance of amyloid-β peptides through blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in human brain. 松本 晃一 Matsumoto Koichi
Abstract A large number of previous reports have focused on the transport of amyloid-β peptides through cerebral endothelial cells via the blood-brain barrier, while fewer reports have mentioned the transport through the choroid plexus epithelium via the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Concrete roles of these two pathways remain to be clarified. In this study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of transporters/receptors that are supposed to be related to the clearance of amyloid-β peptides in the choroid plexus epithelium, the ventricular ependymal cells and the brain microvessels, using seven autopsied human brains. In the choroid plexus epithelium, immunoreactivity for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1), LRP2, formylpeptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-A1 (ABCA1), ABCC1 and ABCG4 was seen in 7 of 7 brains, while that for ABCB1, ABCG2, RAGE and CD36 was seen in 0-2 brains. In the ventricular ependymal cells, immunoreactivity for CD36, LDLR, LRP1, LRP2, FPRL1, ABCA1, ABCC1 and ABCG4 was seen in 6-7 brains, while that for ABCB1, ABCG2 and RAGE was seen in 0-1 brain. Immunoreactivity for insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) was seen in three and four brains in the choroid plexus epithelium and the ventricular ependymal cells, respectively. In addition, immunoreactivity for LDLR, ABCB1 and ABCG2 was seen in over 40 % of the microvessels (all seven brains), and that for FPRL1, ABCA1, ABCC1 and RAGE was seen in over 5 % of the microvessels (4-6 brains), while that for CD36, IDE, LRP1, LRP2 and ABCG4 was seen in less than 5 % of the microvessels (0-2 brains). These findings may suggest that these multiple transporters/receptors and IDE expressed on the choroid plexus epithelium, ventricular ependymal cells and brain microvessels complementarily or cooperatively contribute to the clearance of amyloid-β peptides from the brain. KEYWORDS: Amyloid-β; Choroid plexus; Ependymal cell; Transporter (医博乙274)

Factors affecting the use of complementary and alternative medicine among Japanese university students 氏家 靖浩 Ujiie Yasuhiro
Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from intractable diseases and individuals seeking relief from mild symptoms resort to treatments outside the modern medical paradigm, such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In order to improve doctor-patient communication about CAM, it is essential to evaluate CAM usage among social groups likely to choose it in the future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate how university students - individuals highly subject to future CAM usage - perceive CAM and the factors affecting their choice of CAM use. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey with 1,096 Japanese university students not studying medical subjects. RESULTS: The term CAM was known to 11% of the subjects. Modalities they most associated with CAM were art therapy (353 subjects), hot spring therapy (349), and aromatherapy (345). They had experience taking vitamins, trace elements, other supplements (498), and nutritional drinks (483). Several subjects wanted to experience shiatsu massage (373) and hot spring therapy (303). Multiple regression analysis of the modalities that the subjects wanted to experience revealed a 42% multiple coefficient of determination for prioritizing modalities that the subject associated with CAM, showing a large contribution of this deciding factor. CONCLUSIONS: Although most subjects were not familiar with the term CAM, many of them had decided to ingest substances in the CAM category on the basis of self-judgment and without adequate knowledge. Because such behavior can be detrimental to health, medical professionals should be aware of CAM usage among their patients and seek effective communication with them in order to enable safe CAM practice. (医博乙273)

Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibition on Circadian Blood Pressure during the Development of Salt-Dependent Hypertension in Rats MD. ABU SUFIUN Abu Sufiun
Abstract A growing body of evidence has indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have antihypertensive effects. Here, we aim to examine the effect of vildagliptin, a DPP-4-specific inhibitor, on blood pressure and its circadian-dipping pattern during the development of salt-dependent hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats. DSS rats were treated with a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) plus vehicle or vildagliptin (3 or 10 mg kg(-1) twice daily by oral gavage) for 7 days. Blood pressure was measured by the telemetry system. High-salt diet for 7 days significantly increased the mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were also associated with an extreme dipping pattern of blood pressure in DSS rats. Treatment with vildagliptin dose-dependently decreased plasma DPP-4 activity, increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels and attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension. Furthermore, vildagliptin significantly increased urine sodium excretion and normalized the dipping pattern of blood pressure. In contrast, intracerebroventricular infusion of vildagliptin (50, 500 or 2500 μg) did not alter MAP and heart rate in DSS rats. These data suggest that salt-dependent hypertension initially develops with an extreme blood pressure dipping pattern. The DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, may elicit beneficial antihypertensive effects, including the improvement of abnormal circadian blood pressure pattern, by enhancing urinary sodium excretion. (医博乙272)

Galectin-9 suppresses the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in vitro 髙野 実子 Takano Jitsuko
Abstract Gastric cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer remains poor. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a tandem-repeat-type galectin that has recently been demonstrated to exert anti-proliferative effects on various types of cancer cells. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the effects of Gal-9 on human gastric cancer cells and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the antitumor effects of Gal-9 in vitro. In our initial experiments, Gal-9 suppressed the proliferation of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. Our data further revealed that Gal-9 increased caspase-cleaved keratin 18 (CCK18) levels in gastric cancer cells. Additionally, Gal-9 reduced the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Furthermore, miRNA expression levels were markedly altered with Gal-9 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, Gal-9 suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that Gal-9 could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of gastric cancer. (医博甲637)

The effect of memantine on sleep architecture and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease 石川 一朗 Ishikawa Ichiro
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly present in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disturbed sleep quality is also observed in AD patients. However, the effects of memantine on sleep architecture have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of memantine on polysomnography (PSG) variables and BPSD. METHODS: In total, 12 patients with AD (mean age: 79.0±4.1 years old) were enrolled in this study. The following tests were performed: the Neuropsychiatric Inventory for the assessment of BPSD, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive function, and PSG for evaluation of sleep architecture. After baseline examinations, patients were treated with memantine according to a standard prescription protocol. After being treated with 20 mg/day of memantine for 4 weeks, examinations were carried out again. RESULTS: All subjects completed the trial. The mean MMSE and NPI scores were 22.6±3.4 and 13.8±12.9, respectively. Treatment with memantine significantly decreased the NPI score (5.8±4.3, p<0.01). There were significant decreases in the scores of subscales for anxiety (p=0.04) and irritability/lability (p=0.04). PSG demonstrated a longer total sleep time (TST) (p<0.01), increases in sleep efficiency (p<0.01) and time spent in stage II (% TST, p=0.02), and decreases in nocturnal awakening (p<0.01), the periodic limb movement index (p<0.01), and time spent in stage I (% TST, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Memantine was effective for reducing fragmented sleep and improving BPSD, and was well tolerated. KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s disease; N-methyl-D-aspartate; behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD); periodic limb movement; polysomnography (医博甲636)

Image accuracy and quality test in rate constant depending on reconstruction algorithms with and without incorporating PSF and TOF in PET imaging 前田 幸人 Maeda Yukito
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Positron emission tomography allows imaging of patho-physiological information as a form of rate constants from scanned and reconstructed dynamic image. Some reconstruction algorithms incorporated with time of flight and point spread function have been developed, and quantitative accuracy and quality in the image have been investigated. However, feasibility of the rate constants from the dynamic image has not been directly investigated. We investigated the accuracy and quality in the rate constant by scanning a phantom filled simultaneously with (11)C and (18)F. METHOD: We utilized a phantom filled with (18)F-F(-) solution in the main cylinder and with (11)C-flumazenil solution in seven sub-cylinders. The phantom was scanned by a Biograph mCT and the scanned data were reconstructed with FBP- and OSEM-based algorithms incorporating with and without TOF and/or PSF corrections. Decay rate images as kinetic rate constant were computed for all the reconstructed images and quantitative accuracy and quality in the rate images were investigated. RESULTS: The obtained decay rates were not significantly different from the reference values for both isotopes for all applied algorithms when noise on image was not large. Respective SD was smaller in OSEM with TOF in the (11)C-filled region. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that OSEM incorporating with TOF provides reasonable quantitative accuracy and image quality regarding decay rates. Keywords: Feasibility test; Rate constant; Phantom; PET; Kinetic analysis; (医博甲635)

Detection of chlorine and bromine in free liquid from the sphenoid sinus as an indicator of seawater drowning 田中 直子 Tanaka Naoko
Abstract We have investigated the usefulness of elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in the examination of free liquid from the sphenoid sinus of drowning victims. We detected both chlorine and bromine in liquid taken from the sphenoid sinus of seawater drowning victims. Because these elements were below the quantification limit in freshwater cases, we could easily distinguish seawater from freshwater drowning cases. Detection of these elements from the liquid in the sphenoid sinuses of drowning victims may be useful as a supportive measure for seawater drowning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Bromine; Chlorine; Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX); Liquid in sphenoid sinus; Seawater drowning (医博甲634)

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Google Classroomを用いた授業管理の利点と問題点 山口 直木


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情報モラル教育の現状を踏まえた、情報機器を活用した情報モラル教育環境の構築について 佃 昌道