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 香川共同リポジトリは、香川県内で生産された学術研究成果を電子的に収集、整 理、保存し、インターネットを通じて無償で提供することを目的として公開して います。

*平成23年度国立情報学研究所最先端学術情報基盤(CSI)構築推進委託事業です。

kuir is 6411
total is 6976
L-histidine augments the oxidative damage against Gram-negative bacteria by hydrogen peroxide 谷山 多美子 Taniyama Tamiko
Abstract Excessive damage to DNA and lipid membranes by reactive oxygen species reduces the viability of bacteria. In the present study, the proliferation of recA‑deficient Escherichia coli strains was revealed to be inhibited by 1% L‑histidine under aerobic conditions. This inhibition of proliferation was not observed under anaerobic conditions, indicating that L‑histidine enhances oxidative DNA damage to E. coli cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of recA in E. coli MG1655 increased ~7‑fold following treatment with 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus 1% L‑histidine, compared with that following exposure to H2O2 alone. L‑histidine increased the genomic fragmentation of E. coli MG1655 following exposure to H2O2. In addition, L‑histidine increased the generation of intracellular hydroxyl radicals in the presence of H2O2 in E. coli cells. Next, our group investigated the disinfection properties of the H2O2 and L‑histidine combination. The combination of 100 mM H2O2 and 1.0% L‑histidine significantly reduced the number of viable cells of extended‑spectrum‑β‑lactamase‑producing E. coli and multidrug‑resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and this treatment was more effective than 100 mM H2O2 alone, but this effect was not observed in methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin‑resistant Enterococcus faecium. The combination of L‑histidine and H2O2 may be a useful strategy to selectively increase the microbicidal activity of oxidative agents against Gram‑negative bacteria. (医博乙288)

Counterselection system employing mutated pheS for markerless genetic deletion in Bacteroides species 木納 康博 Kino Yasuhiro
Abstract Markerless gene deletion is necessary for multiple gene disruptions due to the limited number of antibiotic resistant markers for some bacteria. However, even in transformable strains, obtaining the expected mutation without a marker requires laborious screening of a large number of colonies. Previous studies had success in various bacteria with a counter-selection system where a conditional lethal gene was incorporated into the vector. We examined the efficacy of the mutated pheS gene (pheS*) as a counter-selective marker for gene deletion in Bacteroides. This mutation produces an amino acid substitution (A303G) in the alpha subunit of Bacteroides phenylalanyl tRNA synthetase, which in E. coli alters the specificity of the tRNA synthetase resulting in a conditional lethal mutation due to the incorporation of p-chloro-phenylalanine (p-Cl-Phe) into protein. B. fragilis YCH46 and B. thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 transformed with a pheS*-harboring shuttle vector were clearly growth-inhibited in the presence of >5 mM p-Cl-Phe in liquid defined minimal media (DMM) and on DMM agar plates. A targeting plasmid was constructed to delete the genetic region for capsular polysaccharide PS2 in B. fragilis or PS1 in B. thetaiotaomicron. After counterselection, p-Cl-Phe-resistant colonies were generated at a frequency of 8.1 × 10-3 for B. fragilis and 1.7 × 10-3 for B. thetaiotaomicron. Of the p-Cl-Phe-resistant colonies, 4.2% and 72% harbored the correct genetic deletion for B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron, respectively. These results indicate that mutated pheS is a useful counter-selective gene to construct markerless genetic deletions in Bacteroides. KEYWORDS: Bacteroides; p-chloro-phenylalanine; pheS; tRNA (医博乙289)

Y-shaped catheter improves carbon dioxide clearance during apnoeic oxygenation in tracheal surgery 横田 直哉 Yokota Naoya
Abstract OBJECTIVES:: Apnoeic oxygenation is a ventilation method in tracheal surgery, but has the disadvantage of causing progressive hypercapnia. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Y-shaped catheter for the prevention of accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in tracheal surgery. METHODS:: Surgery for tracheal resection and reconstruction was performed in 10 beagles under general anaesthesia. Before transecting the trachea, the dogs were hyperventilated for 10 min with pure oxygen. After the airway was opened, ventilation was maintained with a small catheter for apnoeic oxygenation for 30 min until the end of the tracheal reconstruction. Y-shaped catheters were used in 5 dogs and straight catheters were used in 5 dogs for oxygen insufflation. Haemodynamic values and blood gas values were evaluated and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS:: The mean elevation in the CO2 partial pressure value per minute from 5 min after the start of the procedure to the end of apnoeic oxygenation was 1.34 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.68] in the Y-shaped catheter group and 2.03 mmHg (95% CI 1.54-2.53) in the straight catheter group (P < 0.018). The total CO2 partial pressure elevation value was 59.5 mmHg in the Y-shaped catheter group and 89.0 mmHg in the straight catheter group (P < 0.006). There were no significant differences in haemodynamic values between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:: Apnoeic oxygenation using a Y-shaped catheter represses the accumulation of CO2 compared with a straight catheter in canine tracheal resection-reconstruction surgery. KEYWORDS: Apnoeic oxygenation; Carbon dioxide clearance; Catheter; Tracheal surgery (医博甲724)

Accumulation of microdamage in subchondral bone at the femoral head in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the hip 嶌村 将志 Shimamura Masashi
Abstract In end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip, the effect of bone metabolism with and without cartilage is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate histomorphology and microdamage in the subchondral bone of the femoral head in areas with and without articular cartilage in patients with end-stage OA. Nineteen femoral heads were evaluated in 10 women who underwent total hip arthroplasty for OA and in nine cadaveric controls (CNT). Chondral thickness and subchondral bone plate thickness (SBP.Th) were measured in 5-mm-wide areas where cartilage was lost (area A) or preserved (area B) in OA and in corresponding areas in the load-bearing portion of the femoral head in the CNT. Histomorphometry and microdamage in 5 × 5-mm areas of cancellous bone were assessed. SBP.Th and bone volume were significantly greater in area A than in area B or in the CNT. Osteoid volume was significantly greater in area A than in area B or in the CNT. There was no significant difference in eroded surface between area A and CNT. Microcrack density was significantly greater in area A than in area B or in the CNT. Although accumulation of microdamage was caused by concentration of stress on the subchondral bone in the cartilage loss area in end-stage OA, remodeling for microdamage repairing mechanism was not enhanced. It was considered that the subchondral cancellous bone volume was increased because of modeling, not remodeling, by stress concentration due to articular cartilage loss. KEYWORDS: Bone microdamage; Bone modeling; Femoral head; Histomorphometry; Osteoarthritis (医博甲723)

Effects of diuretics on SGLT2 inhibitor-induced changes in blood pressure in obese rats suffering from the metabolic syndrome MD. ASADUR RAHMAN Rahman Asadur
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Experiments were carried out to investigate whether diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide + furosemide) impact on the effects of a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor on glucose metabolism and blood pressure (BP) in metabolic syndrome SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp). METHODS: Male 13-week-old SHRcp were treated with: vehicle; the SGLT2-inhibitor luseogliflozin (10 mg/kg per day); diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide; 10 mg/kg/day + furosemide; 5 mg/kg per day); or luseogliflozin + diuretics (n = 5-8 for each group) daily by oral gavage for 5 weeks. BP and glucose metabolism were evaluated by a telemetry system and oral glucose tolerance test, respectively. RESULTS: Vehicle-treated SHRcp developed nondipper type hypertension (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 148.6 ± 0.7 and 148.0 ± 0.7 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.2) and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, luseogliflozin-treated rats showed an approximately 4000-fold increase in urinary excretion of glucose and improved glucose metabolism. Luseogliflozin also significantly decreased BP and turned the circadian rhythm of BP from a nondipper to dipper pattern (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 138.0 ± 1.6 and 132.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01), which were associated with a significant increase in urinary excretion of sodium. Addition of diuretics did not influence luseogliflozin-induced improvement of glucose metabolism and circadian rhythm of BP in SHRcp. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a SGLT2 inhibitor elicits its beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and hypertension in study participants with metabolic syndrome undergoing treatment with diuretics. Keywords: diuretics; glucose homeostasis; hypertension; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (医博乙277)

Effects of Makeup Application on Diverting the Gaze of Others from Areas of Inflammatory Lesions in Patients with Acne Vulgaris 米田(村上) 有美 Murakami-Yoneda Yumi
ABSTRACT: Skin manifestations can be major sources of stress for patients with skin diseases; hence, the effective use of makeup and cosmetic products for these patients has been established. The objective of this study was to determine if makeup can divert observers’ gaze from areas of inflammatory acne lesions. Both base and point makeup were applied to two Japanese female patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris to hide skin manifestations, as well as to accentuate the eyes and lips. Photographs of their faces were shown, at various stages of makeup application, to 22 observers (11 men and 11 women). The effects of makeup application, and other eye-diverting strategies (e.g., clothing, accessories, and hairstyle), used to draw observers’ gaze away from acne lesions, were evaluated by analyzing observers’ eye movements. As base makeup application proceeded, time to first fixation, total fixation duration, and fixation count changed. Compared to “no makeup”, the time to first fixation, total fixation duration, and fixation count also decreased significantly after point makeup application. The additional eye-diverting strategies used also had significant gaze-diverting effects. Therefore, makeup can be useful for patients with acne to divert others’ gaze from lesions. Therefore, it should be actively integrated into acne management. KEYWORDS: Acne Vulgaris, Eye Tracking, Base Makeup, Point Makeup, Gaze Diversion (医博乙276)

Usefulness of multislice-CT using multiplanar reconstruction in the preoperative assessment of the ossicular lesions in the middle ear diseases 藤原 聖子 Fujiwara Seiko
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in obtaining preoperative information on the ossicular lesions of middle ear diseases by comparing the ossicular findings of MPR images with the operative findings. METHODS: Sixty-two ears and 10 ears with preoperative middle ear diseases underwent 4- and 64-detector row CT of the temporal bone in Kagawa University Hospital, respectively. MPR images of three ossicles were created at the planes parallel to the long axis of ossicles. RESULTS: The findings of the three ossicles in MPR images were compatible with their operative findings in approximately 91% of 72 ears with various middle ear diseases. There was no significant difference in the coincidence rate of both findings between 4- and 64-detector row CT scanners. The ears with no soft tissue shadows around the ossicles had the coincidence rate of 96-100% in each ossicular part, whereas the coincidence rate was lower in the ears with soft tissue shadows around the ossicles. CONCLUSION: MPR imagings of the ossicles provide accurate preoperative information on the ossicular lesions in middle ear diseases. The 4-detector CT is still a useful device for imaging of the ossicles. KEYWORDS: Auditory ossicular lesion; Middle ear diseases; Multiplanar reconstruction image; Multiscan CT; Surgical findings (医博乙275)

Immunohistochemical analysis of transporters related to clearance of amyloid-β peptides through blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in human brain. 松本 晃一 Matsumoto Koichi
Abstract A large number of previous reports have focused on the transport of amyloid-β peptides through cerebral endothelial cells via the blood-brain barrier, while fewer reports have mentioned the transport through the choroid plexus epithelium via the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Concrete roles of these two pathways remain to be clarified. In this study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of transporters/receptors that are supposed to be related to the clearance of amyloid-β peptides in the choroid plexus epithelium, the ventricular ependymal cells and the brain microvessels, using seven autopsied human brains. In the choroid plexus epithelium, immunoreactivity for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1), LRP2, formylpeptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-A1 (ABCA1), ABCC1 and ABCG4 was seen in 7 of 7 brains, while that for ABCB1, ABCG2, RAGE and CD36 was seen in 0-2 brains. In the ventricular ependymal cells, immunoreactivity for CD36, LDLR, LRP1, LRP2, FPRL1, ABCA1, ABCC1 and ABCG4 was seen in 6-7 brains, while that for ABCB1, ABCG2 and RAGE was seen in 0-1 brain. Immunoreactivity for insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) was seen in three and four brains in the choroid plexus epithelium and the ventricular ependymal cells, respectively. In addition, immunoreactivity for LDLR, ABCB1 and ABCG2 was seen in over 40 % of the microvessels (all seven brains), and that for FPRL1, ABCA1, ABCC1 and RAGE was seen in over 5 % of the microvessels (4-6 brains), while that for CD36, IDE, LRP1, LRP2 and ABCG4 was seen in less than 5 % of the microvessels (0-2 brains). These findings may suggest that these multiple transporters/receptors and IDE expressed on the choroid plexus epithelium, ventricular ependymal cells and brain microvessels complementarily or cooperatively contribute to the clearance of amyloid-β peptides from the brain. KEYWORDS: Amyloid-β; Choroid plexus; Ependymal cell; Transporter (医博乙274)

Factors affecting the use of complementary and alternative medicine among Japanese university students 氏家 靖浩 Ujiie Yasuhiro
Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from intractable diseases and individuals seeking relief from mild symptoms resort to treatments outside the modern medical paradigm, such as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In order to improve doctor-patient communication about CAM, it is essential to evaluate CAM usage among social groups likely to choose it in the future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate how university students - individuals highly subject to future CAM usage - perceive CAM and the factors affecting their choice of CAM use. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey with 1,096 Japanese university students not studying medical subjects. RESULTS: The term CAM was known to 11% of the subjects. Modalities they most associated with CAM were art therapy (353 subjects), hot spring therapy (349), and aromatherapy (345). They had experience taking vitamins, trace elements, other supplements (498), and nutritional drinks (483). Several subjects wanted to experience shiatsu massage (373) and hot spring therapy (303). Multiple regression analysis of the modalities that the subjects wanted to experience revealed a 42% multiple coefficient of determination for prioritizing modalities that the subject associated with CAM, showing a large contribution of this deciding factor. CONCLUSIONS: Although most subjects were not familiar with the term CAM, many of them had decided to ingest substances in the CAM category on the basis of self-judgment and without adequate knowledge. Because such behavior can be detrimental to health, medical professionals should be aware of CAM usage among their patients and seek effective communication with them in order to enable safe CAM practice. (医博乙273)

Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibition on Circadian Blood Pressure during the Development of Salt-Dependent Hypertension in Rats MD. ABU SUFIUN Abu Sufiun
Abstract A growing body of evidence has indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have antihypertensive effects. Here, we aim to examine the effect of vildagliptin, a DPP-4-specific inhibitor, on blood pressure and its circadian-dipping pattern during the development of salt-dependent hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats. DSS rats were treated with a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) plus vehicle or vildagliptin (3 or 10 mg kg(-1) twice daily by oral gavage) for 7 days. Blood pressure was measured by the telemetry system. High-salt diet for 7 days significantly increased the mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were also associated with an extreme dipping pattern of blood pressure in DSS rats. Treatment with vildagliptin dose-dependently decreased plasma DPP-4 activity, increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels and attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension. Furthermore, vildagliptin significantly increased urine sodium excretion and normalized the dipping pattern of blood pressure. In contrast, intracerebroventricular infusion of vildagliptin (50, 500 or 2500 μg) did not alter MAP and heart rate in DSS rats. These data suggest that salt-dependent hypertension initially develops with an extreme blood pressure dipping pattern. The DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, may elicit beneficial antihypertensive effects, including the improvement of abnormal circadian blood pressure pattern, by enhancing urinary sodium excretion. (医博乙272)

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