畦面被覆の微気象に関する研究 Ⅷ. ハウス栽培における植被と黒色ポリエチレンフィルムが地温に及ぼす影響

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Title
畦面被覆の微気象に関する研究 Ⅷ. ハウス栽培における植被と黒色ポリエチレンフィルムが地温に及ぼす影響
Title Alternative
Studies on the microclimate of the mulched row surface. Ⅷ. Effects of canopy and mulching with black polyethylene film on the soil temperature in plastic greenhouse
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Description

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of mulching by black polyethylene film and a canopy on the soil temperature in plastic greenhouse. The house and mulching materials had made use of translucent chloroethylene film (0.075 mm thick) and black polyethylene film (0.04 mm thick), respectively. Regulation of transmissivity of solar radiation was conducted with a model canopy made of lawns. The rows in the house and an open field were mulched, the model canopies were set and the cucumber cv. 'Shinko' was planted. This experiment was made from December in 1980 to July in 1981. The results obtained are as follows. (1) In the plastic house, the net radiation and sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes on the row of mulched plot (No.1) had increased 11-12 percent than that of unmulched one (No.7) on May 18. But the soil heat flux of mulched plot had decreased 6 percent than that of unmulched one. (2) The soil temperature difference (mulch-no mulch) as effect of film mulching on the soil temperature (-5cm) was gained without regard to amount of solar radiation in the plastic house. But in the open field, it was gained with 26-123 cal cm-2 day-1 of solar radiation. And so, the temperature effect of mulching is remarkable in the plastic house. (3) The ratios of diurnal range of soil temperature of mulched plots to that of control (no canopy or no canopy and no film mulch), which are the single effect of model canopy and the compound effect of canopy and mulching on soil temperature, were decreased with transmissivity of solar radiation was reduced in the house and the open field. (4) The more the growing period was early, the more the effect of cucumber canopy on soil temperature in house was great, whether was mulching or not. And in the case of whole growing period, the effect of temperature in unmulched plot was greater than that of mulched plot.

本実験の目的は, ハウス内の畦面被覆栽培におけるフィルムマルチと植被が地温へ及ぼす影響を, 微気象的に明らかにすることである. ハウスには透明ビニール(厚さ0.075mm)を, マルチには黒色ポリフィルム(同0.04mm)を用いた. 日射の抑制は, 寒冷紗の枚数を調整した植生模型によった. ハウス内と露地にはそれぞれマルチと植生模型を設置し, マルチと日射抑制の各単独効果, 及びそれら両者による複合効果を, 主に地温を中心にみた. また, キュウリ“新光""を裁植して植被の影響も検討した. 実験は, 1980年12月より翌年7月に行った. 1) ハウス内の熱収支をみると, 純放射量では日中, マルチの方が無マルチより12%も多く(4月18日), 顕・潜熱伝達量もマルチの方が11%多かった. しかし, 地中伝導熱量では逆にマルチの方が無マルチより6%低かった. 2) マルチの単独効果を最高, 最低, 平均地温(地下5cm)でみると, 露地(無孔フィルム)のマルチでは日射量が26?123 cal cm-2day-1において地温効果(マルチ-無マルチ)が得られたのにハウスではそれが0cal cm-2day-1でも効果が認められ, マルチによる地温上昇が顕著であった. 3) マルチと日射抑制(植生模型)による地温効果を地温日較差比からみると, 日射抑制の単独効果, 及び日射抑制とマルチによる複合効果のいずれの場合も, 日射を強く抑制するほど日較差比は小さくなるが, ハウスと露地間では大差がなかった. 4) ハウス栽培におけるキュウリ(植被)の地温に対する影響は, マルチ, 無マルチともに生育の初期ほど大きいが, 生育全般を通じては無マルチの方がマルチより大きかった.

Author
著者 鈴木 晴雄
著者(ヨミ) スズキ ハルオ
著者(別表記) Suzuki Haruo
著者 橋本 利之
著者(ヨミ) ハシモト トシユキ
著者(別表記) Hashimoto Toshiyuki
著者 宮本 硬一
著者(ヨミ) ミヤモト コウイチ
著者(別表記) Miyamoto Koichi
Publication Title
香川大学農学部学術報告
Volume
34
Issue
2
Start Page
129
End Page
138
Publisher
香川大学農学部
Published Date
198303
ISSN
0368-5128
NCID
AN00038339
Resource Type
Departmental Bulletin Paper
Language
jpn
Text Version
publisher
Set
香川大学
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